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[英国媒体] 经济学人:年轻人与言论自由

五毛网 外媒看中国 2017年02月20日 来源:五毛网

原文地址:http://www.economist.com/blogs/graphicdetail/2017/02/daily-chart-10


Daily chart


每日图表


Young people and free speech


年轻人与言论自由


Young people are tolerant of other people, except others’ intolerance


年轻人宽容别人,除了别人的不宽容



YOUNG people have always been more idealistic than their elders, and more liberal too. In the 1960sbaby-boomers spearheaded the social revolution that liberalised values across Western countries. What were then fringe issues, such as equality for women andracial minorities, are now social norms in most rich countries. And even inplaces where they are not, young people espouse such values. However, as a new survey reveals, there is one area where young people’s views are not soprogressive: free speech.


年轻人总是比他们的长辈更理想主义,也更开明.在上世纪60年代,婴儿潮世代引领了一次社会变革,使西方国家的价值观趋向自由化.那时候的次要问题,诸如妇女和少数族裔的平权问题,现在已成为了多数富裕国家的社会准则.而即便在那些尚未成为社会准则的地方,年轻人也支持这样的价值观.然而,正如一项最新调查显示,有一个领域,年轻人的观点并不进步----言论自由.


Overall, the poll conducted by Populus, a research firm, on behalf of the Varkey Foundation, aneducational charity, shows that among young people there is broad support for expanding rights to historically marginalised minority groups. In all of the 18countries surveyed, a majority of 18- to 21-year-olds agreed that there shouldbe equality between the sexes and rights for transgender people. In the United States, three-quarters of respondents are in favour of transgender rights. Theyoung are similarly supportive in India, which introduced a law recognising rights for a “third gender” in 2014.


博普鲁是一家依托于教育慈善领域的瓦尔吉基金会的研究机构.根据博普鲁的调查显示,总的来说, 年轻人广泛支持增加历史上被边缘化的少数群体的权利.在所有18国的调查中,18-21岁的被调查者大多数都同意应该男女平等,并认可变性人(跨性别者)的权利.在美国,有75%的受访者都赞同变性人的权利.印度的年轻人同样认可这一点,印度曾于2014年引入了一项承认“第三性别”的法律.


Even when equal treatmentis not enshrined in law, young people tend to support it. More than half of youngsters in 15 countries want safe and legal abortion—even in places where the procedure is currently illegal, such as South Korea. Similarly, respondents in most countries are in favour of same-sexmarriage. This pattern includes India, where homosexuality is a crime.


即使法律没有规定平等待遇,年轻人也倾向于支持这一点.有15个国家希望安全合法堕胎的年轻人超过半数-----即便在像韩国这样目前把堕胎列为非法的国家也如此.同样,大多数国家的受访者赞成同性婚姻.其中也包括印度,这个把同性恋列为犯罪的国家.


However, there is one right that young people are less keen on extending to others: the right to saywhat you want. Overall, fewer than half of those polled agreed that people should be allowed to express non-violent opinions even if they offendminorities. In Britain and Germany, for instance, only 46% and 48% did.


不过,有一种权利却是年轻人不那么情愿给别人的:随心所欲表达想法的权利.总体来说,只有不到一半的受访者同意,人们应该被允许非暴力地自由表达观点,即便这些观点冒犯了少数人.例如在英国和德国,赞同的比例仅为46%和48%.


The right to free speech is not absolute, as anyone who shouts “fire” in a crowded theatre will soon discover. At the same time,the recent polling data bolster the view that today′s youth are embracing a right not to be offended, which threatens tosquelch necessary debate. Time will tell whether this group startsto dedicate itself to winning arguments rather than to preventing them from occurring.


言论自由的权利并不是绝对的,任何人只要在拥挤的剧院喊“着火了”就很快会明白这一点.(译注:这是一个英文中流行的比喻,比喻用语言和行动故意造成不必要的恐慌.意为强调假的危险言论不应受到保护.事实上,1856年的伦敦,1884年的纽约,1902年的阿拉巴马,1913年的密歇根都曾发生过在公共场合喊着火而酿成的惨剧.)同时,这份最近的调查数据也强化了一个观点,即今天的年轻人希望拥有不被冒犯的权利,而这个权利可能会使必要的争论减少.时间会告诉我们,他们是会致力于赢得争论,还是会致力于阻止争论发生.


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